G-GIS Glossary,

Posted on Jul 2, 2007 By : Mizake Laziaf
This glossary is a sub-set of one developed by the Urban and Regional Information
Systems Association (URISA)


Geocoding
In spatial databases, a coding process wherein a digital map feature is assigned an attribute to serve as a unique ID (tract number, node number) or classification (soil type, zoning category). In polygon processing, the polygon boundary that contains the coordinate pair of a data item (text label) is assigned the value of that data item as "geocode". Also see “address matching”.

Geographic Information System (GIS)
NOTE: The following is not an attempt to provide a single generic definition.
  1. Computerized decision support systems that integrate spatially referenced data. These systems capture, store. retrieve, analyze and display spatial data.
  2. An organized assemblage of computer hardware, software, spatial data and operating instructions designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.
  3. A manual or computer-based system for geographic data input, storage, manipulation, analysis, modeling and output. The system is used to improve geographic question-asking and problem-solving, and to enhance the overall geographic decision-making process.

GPS
Acronym for Global Positioning System, hardware and software designed to communicate with specialized satellites to determine ground location.

Graphic User Interface
This term refers to a software standard used to establish the menus, screens, dialog boxes, buttons, edit boxes, pick lists, toggles, radio buttons, command input, and viewing screens used to communicate instructions to the computer and for the computer to communicate findings back to the user.

Graphic/Non-Graphic Interface
These terms refer to two-way interface between the spatial database (drawing) and the non-graphic DBMS table. The interface supports instructions sent by the user from the spatial database requesting specific operations to be performed by the supporting DBMS, and instructions sent from the DBMS requesting specific transactions to be performed by the spatial database (i.e. change the color, fill pattern, width or thickness of associated spatial features)

Ground Control
Ground control refers to points on the surface of the earth with known coordinates as represented by some geographic grid reference system. The location of ground control points can be represented on maps and other cartographic products, and can serve as reference points with which to rectify the scale and accuracy of cartographic products to the actual area on the ground that is represented. Ground control points are classified according to their horizontal and vertical accuracy (e.g., Second Order Class I).

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